The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters appoints three Kavli Prize Selection Committees on the basis of nominations received by leading international academies and other equivalent scientific organizations. Nominations for the committees are provided by:
- The Chinese Academy of Sciences
- The French Academy of Sciences
- The Max Planck Society (Germany)
- The National Academy of Sciences (US)
- The Royal Society (UK)
The three prize committees are tasked with reviewing and discussing the nominations received through an open, international call and putting forth a unanimous recommendation for the laureates to The Norwegian Academy. Each committee works independently of one another.
Each prize committee consists of five members who serve two terms (two prize cycles), except the chairs who serve three terms (three prize cycles). The committee members are a mix of gender and ethnicity, and The Norwegian Academy prioritizes for the five-member committees to have balance between male and female scientists internationally.